© Lybomyr Krajnyk, Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor,
ORCID:0000-0002-0524-9126, e-mail: email@example.com
© Mykhailo Burian, Candidate of Technical Sciences,
ORCID:0000-0003-2859-346, e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
(NU “Lviv Polytechnic”);
© Olena Lanets, Candidate of Technical Sciences, docent
ORCID. 0000-0001-7149-0957, e-mail: email@example.com
(NU “Lviv Polytechnic”);
© Vasyl Kokhan, Candidate of Technical Sciences,
ORCID: 0000-0001-8909-811X, e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Hetman Petro Sahaidachnyi National Army Academy
SMOOTHNESS OF MOVEMENT AS THE BASIS OF CAR COMFORT:FORMATION OF THE REGULATORY FRAMEWORK «VEHICLE ROAD СOMFORT»
Abstract. The development and condition of the road network of Ukraine significantly lag behind the needs of society. At the same time, the road itself is the basic factor that forms the smoothness and driving comfort in the aspect of vibration loads of the driver and passengers. In addition, in the conditions of warfare, the mobility (that is, speed modes) of military vehicles off-road is extremely important, the maximum values of which are limited to reaching the maximum permissible levels of vibration loads on personnel (driver – passenger). As a result of practical tests, the results of vibration loads were obtained for the scheme “Road surface – Car – Passenger”. Based on these results, the foundations for the formation of a national regulatory framework regarding the permissible vibration loads during the transporting of passengers on roads and as well as conditions for limiting the speed of off-road vehicles were developed. Based on ISO 2631-1, according to the results of the research, regulatory requirements for the level of permissible vibration loads for city, suburban, and intercity buses, as well as a conformity assessment methodology had been defined. The issues of suspension requirements for off-road driving are considered in connection with the formation of the regulatory framework for military equipment as the basis for mobility from the conditions of vibration loads and the separation of requirements to military equipment designs, depending on the scope of use. By analogy with NATO countries, the above requirements are also necessary regarding the suspension, as a determining element of comfort and off-road mobility. This predetermines the development of a separate standard for military equipment.
Keywords. smoothness, passenger transportation, highway, off-road driving, vibration loads.
1. Ministry of Transport and Connection of Ukraine. (2009). Poryadok vyznachennya klassu komfortnosti avtobusiv, sfery yikhnʹoho vykorystannya za vydamy spoluchennya ta rezhymamy rukhu: zatv. nakazom Mintranszvʺyazku vid 12.04.2007 r. № 285. [The procedure for determining the comfort class of buses, the scope of their use by type of message and traffic modes: approved. by order of the Ministry of Transport and Communications of April 12, 2007 No. 285.] Retrieved 1 August 2022 from https://zakon.rada.gov.ua/laws/show/z0499-07#Text [in Ukrainian]
2. Trollius M. (2002). Transmisiyna povedinka kolisnykh pidvisok lehkovykh avtomobiliv u komfortno-relevantnomu diapazoni chastot. [Transmission behavior of wheel suspensions for passenger cars in the comfort-relevant frequency range]. Stuttgart: Schaber-Verlag, 326. [in Germany].
3. State Standard of Ukraine. (2004). ISO2631-1:2004. Vibratsiya ta udar mekhanichni. Otsinka vplyvu zahalʹnoyi vibratsiyi na lyudynu. [ISO2631-1:2004. Vibration and shock are mechanical. Assessment of the impact of general vibration on a person]. Derzhstandart Ukrayiny, Kyiv, 36. [in Ukrainian].
4. State sanitary standards of Ukraine. (2000). 3.3.6.039 – 99. Derzhavni sanitarni normy vyrobnychoyi zahalʹnoyi ta lokalʹnoyi vibratsiyi (31680). [3.3.6.039 – 99. State sanitary norms of industrial general and local vibration (31680)]. MOZ Ukrayiny, Kyiv, 39. [in Ukrainian].
5. Industry Standard USSR (1985). 37.001.275.-84. Avtotransportni zasoby. Metody vyprobuvanʹ na plavnistʹ khodu. [37.001.275.-84. Vehicles. Ride Test Methods]. Ministry of Automotive Industry of the USSR, Moscow, 12. [in USSR].
6. Industry Standard USSR. ( 1985). 37.001.291 – 84. Avtotransportni zasoby. Tekhnichni normy plavnosti khodu” [37.001.291–84. Vehicles. Ride technical standards]. Ministry of Automotive Industry of the USSR, Moscow, 7. [in USSR].
7. Brigantic R. & Mahahn J. (2004). Oboronnyy transport: alhorytmy, modeli ta zastosuvannya dlya 21-ho stolittya” [Defence Transportation: Algorithms, Models and Applikation for the 21st Century]. 1st Edition. Elsevier Science, 392 p. ISBN 9780080913858. Retrieved 5 August 2022 from https://www.elsevier.com/books/defense-transportation-algorithms-models-and-applications-for-the-21st-century/brigantic/978-0-08-044405-5 [in USA].
8. Grubel M. G., Kraynyk L. V. & Andrienko A. M. (2020). Osnovy formuvannya natsionalʹnoyi normatyvnoyi bazy shchodo prokhidnosti kolisnoyi viysʹkovoyi avtomobilʹnoyi tekhniky” [Basics of the formation of the national regulatory framework regarding the passability of wheeled military automobile equipment]. Armament systems and military equipment. Kharkiv: KhNUPS named after Iv. Kozheduba. 2, 62, 7-17. Retrieved 5 August 2022 from https://doi.org/10.30748/soivt.2020.62.01 [in Ukrainian].
9. Lessem A., Mason G. & Ahlvin R. (1996). Stokhastychni prohnozy mobilʹnosti transportnykh zasobiv z vykorystannyam etalonnoyi modeli mobilʹnosti NATO. [Stohastics vehicle mobility forecasts using the NATO reference mobility model]. Zhurnal Terramekhanika, 1, 273-280. Retrieved 5 August 2022 from https://doi.org/10.1016/S0022-4898(97)00010-4.[in USA].
10. Kalchenko B.I., Rebrov O.Yu., Kozhushko A.P. & Mamontov A.G. (2018). Plavnistʹ rukhu yak skladova dynamiky traktora: monohrafiya. [Smoothness of movement as a component of tractor dynamics: monograph]. Kharkiv, ed. FOP Panov A.M., 164. [in Ukrainian].
11. Buryan M.V. & Bondar M.I. (2016). Otsinka plavnosti rukhu avtobusa metodamy modelyuvannya v systemi matlab/simulink. [Assessment of the smoothness of the bus movement by modeling methods in the matlab/simulink system]. Bulletin of Lviv Polytechnic University Dynamics, strength and design of machines and devices. Lviv, 838, 115-120. [in Ukrainian].
12. Kraynуk L.V. & Nazarkevych S.M. (2009). Formuvannya normatyvnoyi otsinky plavnosti rukhu avtobusiv. [Forming a normative assessment of the smoothness of bus traffic]. Bulletin of the Donetsk Academy of Road Transport. Donetsk, 3, 19-22. [in Ukrainian].
13. Defence Standard. (1992). DEF STAN 23-6. Posibnyk iz zahalʹnykh tekhnichnykh vymoh do viysʹkovoyi tekhniky ta rushnykovoyi tekhniky. [DEF STAN 23-6. Guide to the Common Technical Requirements for Military Vehicles and Towel Equipment]. MODUK. Retrieved 5 August 2022 from https://www.standards.globalspec.com/std/244958/def-stan-23-6. [in England].
14. Manzyak M.O., Kraynyk L.V. & Grubel M.G. (2021). Tendentsiyi rozvytku konstruktsiy pidvisky viysʹkovykh avtomobiliv” [Trends in the development of military vehicle suspension designs]. Weapon systems and military equipment, 65, Kharkiv, KhNUPS, 27–34. Retrieved 5 August 2022 from https://doi.org/10.30748/soivt.2021.65.04. [in Ukrainian].
15. Pyper M. & Schitter W. (2009). Aktyvne keruvannya kuzovom: vid lystovoyi resory do aktyvnoyi systemy dlya bilʹshoyi bezpeky ta komfortu vodinnya. [Active Body Control: From the leaf spring to the active system for more driving safety and driving comfort]. Landsberg: Modern Industry, 326. [in Germany].
16. Dushchenko V.V. (2018). Systemy pidresoryuvannya viysʹkovykh husenychnykh i kolisnykh mashyn: rozrakhunok ta syntez. [Suspension systems of military tracked and wheeled vehicles: education manual / V.V. Dushchenko; ed. O. I. Shpilova. Kharkiv, National technical University “Kharkiv Polytechnic Institute”, A. M. Panov, 2018, 336. ISBN: 978-617-7771-07-3. [in Ukrainian].
17. Lanets O.V., Krainyk L.V. (27-29 November 2021). Mobilʹnistʹ avtomobilya na bezdorizhzhi: suchasni pidkhody ta formuvannya natsionalʹnoyi normatyvnoyi bazy. [Off-road vehicle mobility: modern approaches and formation of the national regulatory framework]. The latest technologies in the automotive industry, transport and in the training of specialists: collection of sciences. works. intl. scientific-practical. conf., Kharkiv, KHNADU, 415-417. [in Ukrainian].