Article 7 # 1'2023


© Lubomyr Kraynyk, Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor, ORCID: 0000-0002-0524-9126, e-mail:
JSC «Ukrautobusprom»
© Olena Lanets, Candidate of Technical Sciences, Associate Professor,
ORCID: 0000-0001-7149-0957, e-mail:
Lviv Polytechnic National University

Оff-road vehicle mobility: modern methodology and normativ base
DOI: 10.33868/0365-8392-2022-1-273-44-52

Abstract. Based on the analysis of the research of the Eastern and Western scientific schools, it was deter-?ined that the basic provisions and known achievements of the Western scientific school should be the basis for the formation of a modern domestic scientific school in the field of design and operation of vehicles with high and increased cross-country ability. It is necessary to take into account the priority direction of the research data in the field of military auto equipment, and therefore the problem of the lack of detailed algorithms or methods of computerized calculation and evaluation of the speed characteristics of the movement of a specific car on various support surfaces, which can be applied to practical use.
The modern trend of the gradual transition of the NATO armies to a new generation of vehicles with the appearance of new models is due to the improvement of anti-mine protection of the crew and passability. And so it was formed in the 60s. In the 20th century, the configuration of the MI requires changes in accordance with the modern development of structures and requirements for them in the conditions of mobile military operations. This also applies to the differentiation of the same value of the axle load factor in the axle load range from 1 to 6 t 9, in which about 90% of the fleet of modern armies is concentrated, into 3 separate values for axle loads. The calcu-?ations are based on the condition of uniform distribution of the nominal load on the axle, which is not always correct for specific designs, especially for different layout schemes (hooded or hoodless). The same circumstance is also characteristic of the second NATO-standardized indicator of the vehicle’s structural passability, which elimi-?ates the real differences in the mobility of the same type and small-sized cars.
Based on the review and analysis of modern research in the field of cross-country mobility and off-road mobility, the main provisions for the formation and assessment of the layout and suspension of high and increased cross-country cars and the conditions for maximum cross-country mobility, as well as the corresponding national standard, are presented.
Keywords: off-road, vehicle, performance, mobility of movement, layout, suspension, standard.

1. Lutz J. (2003). Mobility of Ground Vehicles. US Military view a overview pri-mer and reference source quide. Quent systems Inc., 101. Retrieved from https:/>ques systems>a>on_military_vehicle_mobilty_2003
2. Army Truck Program. (June 2010). Tactical Wheeled Acguisition Strategy. Report to the Congress, Washington, Headquartiers, Departament of the Army, 105.
3. Skibiliaev M. K., Shestakov V. M. (2009). Osnovnye programy razvitia kole-snykh mashyn mnogotselevogo naznache-nia sukhoputnykh voisk USA na period do 2025 goda / Bronetankovoe vooruzhenie e tekhnika. Voyennaia avtomobilnaia tekhnika Vooruzhonnyh Sil Rossiyskoy Federatsyi. [The main programs for the development of multi-purpose wheeled vehicles of the US ground forces for the period up to 2025 / Armored weapons and equipment. Military vehicles of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation]. Moscow, 1, NII-21, 50-54.
4. Aheykyn Ya. S. (1981). Prokhodymost’ avtomobyley. [Vehicle pa-tency]. Moscow, Mashynostroenye, 230.
5. Vol’skaya N. S. (2003). Evaluation of the patency of a wheeled vehicle when driving on an uneven ground surface. Moscow, MGIU, 224.
6. Larin V. V. (2004). Theory of movement of all-wheel drive vehicles. Moscow, Ed. MSTU im. N.E. Bauman, 391.
7. Becker M. G. (1973). Introduction to the theory of terrain-machine systems. Moscow, Engineering, 520.
8. Wong J. (1982). Theory of ground vehicles. Moscow, Mashinostroenie, 284.
9. Wong Y.J. (2010). Terramechanics and off rood vehicles engineering. Second. Ed. London, Butterworth – Hannemann, 482.
10. Robert Brigantic, Jean Mahan. (2004). Defence Transportation Algor-?thms, Models and Application for the 21” сentury. Retrieved from the-21st- century/brigantic/978-0-08-044405-5
11. Taghavifar H., Mardani A. (2017). Off-road Vehicle Dynamics, Analysis, Modelling and Optimization. Retrieved from
12. Grubel M. G., Kraynyk L. V., Andrienko A. M. (2020). Basics of the formation of the national base regarding the passability of wheeled military vehicles. Weapon systems and military equipment, Kharkiv, ed. KhNUPS, 2, 62, 7-17.
13. Standartinform. (2017). GOST R ISO 22476-1-2017. Geotechnical studies and tests. Field tests. Part 1. Static and piezostatic probing with an electric probe. Moscow, ed. Standartov, 32.
14. Grubel M. G., Kraynyk L. V., Kuprinenko O. M. (2019). Methodology for evaluating the support patency of wheeled military vehicles. Armament and military equipment, Kyiv, Kind. TsNDI OVT, 4, 24, 22-31.
15. Grubel M. G. Kraynyk L. V., Khoma V. M. (2020). Simulation modeling of the movement of wheeled military vehicles off-road and assessment of its adequacy. Ukraine Highway. Kyiv, 2, 21-28.
16. Wong Y. Ch. Lim H.H.S., Chan W. G. (2016). An Assessment of land vehicles trafficability/DSTA Horizons, 54-60.
17. Rula A. A., Nuttall C. J Jr.(1971). An Analysis of ground mobility models (ANAMOB). Retrieved from https://www. dtic. Mil/cgi-bin/Get TRDa?Locatijn=U28doc=Get TRDoc.pdf &AD=0886513
18. Ostretsov A. V., Esakov A. E., Sharypov V. M. (2014). A comparative assessment of the roadworthiness of KamAZ-4350, KamAZ-43114 and Ural 4320-31 cars on loose sand//Izvestia MGTU “MAMA”, 1, 19, 1, 50-5419.
19. Gimenez A. P., Kovacs L., Holz D., Telchmann M., Kоveczes J. (Sept. 25-27. 2017). Dynamic simulation of wheeled vehicles:model and algorithms. Proc. of the 19 th Internationals 14 th European – African Regional Conference of the ISTVS. Budapest.