© Viktor Zolotaryov, Doctor of Science, Professor, e-mail: email@example.com, ОRCID: 0000-0003-2132-9289;
© Yan Pyrig, Ph.D, Senior Researcher, e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org, ОRCID: 0000-0003-0957-2251;
© Andrey Galkin, Ph.D, Senior Researcher, e-mail: email@example.com, ОRCID: 0000-0002-1904-5618
(the Department of Technology of Road-Construction Materials Kharkov National Automobile and Highway University)
THE SECOND STANDARD ON VISCOUS PETROLEUM ROAD BITUMENS: ITS CONTENT AND PERSPECTIVE
Abstract. The first Ukrainian standard ДСТУ 4044 “Viscous petroleum road bitumens. Technical conditions” was implemented in 2002. According to its content and list of indicators, it met the level of the oil refining industry of Ukraine and the state of the road industry. In addition to conventional indicators, it included additional indicators of adhesion and mass content of paraffins. The indicator for paraffin remained unregulated, because there was neither acceptable method nor necessary equipment, and in generally an intention of manufacturers and users to apply it. The standard referred to in the article differs from the previous one by the principle of assigning indicators and their list. This is largely due to Ukraine’s accession to the European Free Trade Association and the deepening of scientific knowledge on predicting the behavior of bitumen under different conditions and their impact on the properties of asphalt concrete. Accordingly, the limits of normalization of bitumen grades on the depth of needle penetration were changed, which led to an increase in amount of grades from 4 to 5. Using the dependence of the penetration index on the softening point temperature, its new normative values are ordered. The Fraas breaking temperature provided by the standard is slightly lower than that normalized EN 12591 which is due the climatic conditions of Ukraine. The rate of adhesion of bitumen to the surface is normalized, which quantitatively characterizes the adhesion of bitumen to the mineral substrate, the least favorable for interaction. It is proposed to determine the indicators of technological aging by the RTFOT method.
The standard contains additional indicators to be determined according to the harmonized European standards ДСТУ EN 12607-1 and ДСТУ EN 13302 (methods for determining the dynamic viscosity). Additional standards include equal viscous heating temperatures of bitumen in the production of asphalt mixtures and their compaction. The first is the temperature, which corresponds to a bitumen viscosity of 0.5 Pas, the second is 10 Pas. Elongation at a temperature of 0 ºC is included in the standard as a certain analogue of the breaking temperature.
Based on the fact that at this time the next European standard is in the final stage before approval, the values of additional indicators can be included into this standard after adjusting their values with European ones based on the characteristics of bitumen used in Ukraine.
Keywords: bitumen, depth of needle penetration, softening point temperature, adhesion, ductility, cohesion, heating.
1. Zolotaryov, V. A. (2018). Razhadannaya penetratsyya [Unsolved penetration]. Nauka y tekhnyka v dorozhnoy otrasly, 4, 38-40.
2. Pfieffer, J. P., & Van Doormaal, P. M. (1936). The rheological properties of asphaltic bitumen. J. Inst. Pet. Technol, 22, 414-424.
3. SE “UkrNDNC”. (2019). Bіtum ta bіtumnі v’jazhuchі. Metod viznachennja ekvіpenetracіjnoї temperaturi ta іndeksu penetracії [Bitumen and bituminous binders. Method of determination of equipenetration temperature and penetration index]. DSTU 8859:2019 from 1st July 2019. Kyiv. [in Ukrainian].
4. Zolotarev, V. A. (2016). Zagadochnaja temperatura razmjagchenija [Mysterious softening temperature]. Avtomobil’nye dorogi, 10, 75-81.
5. Vynohradov, H. V., Zolotarev, V. A., Verebskaya, E. A., & Bodan, A. M. (1978). Ob osobennostyakh vyazko-upruhoho povedenyya bytumov raznыkh strukturno-reolohycheskykh typov v rezhymakh neprerыvnoho deformyrovanyya [On the features of the viscoelastic behavior of bitumen of different structural types in the modes of continuous deformation] Kolloydniy zhurnal, 4, 629-635.
6. Zolotaryov, V. A. (2012). Hlubyna pronykanyya yhly kak kharakterystyka soprotyvlenyya bytuma sdvyhu [Penetration depth of the needle as a characteristic of shear resistance of bitumen]. Nauka y tekhnyka v dorozhnoy otrasly, 2, 31-34.
7. Asphalt Institute (Ed.). (2003). Performance graded asphalt binder specification and testing (No. 1). Asphalt Institute.
8. Ferry, D. (1963). Vyazkoupruhye svoystva polymerov [Viscoelastic properties of polymers]. Moscow, Yzd-vo ynostr. lyt., 535.
9. Zolotarev, V., Pyrig, Y., & Galkin, A. (2020). Cohesion of bitumen: its opportunities and prospects. Road Materials and Pavement Design, 21, 5, 1399-1412.
10. Heukelom, W. (1975). Une methode amelioree de caracterisation des bitumes par leurs proprietes mecaniques. Bull Liaison Lab Ponts Chauss, 76, 55-64.
11. Van Poel, C. D. (1954). A general system describing the visco‐elastic properties of bitumens and its relation to routine test data.Journal of applied chemistry, 4, 5, 221-236.
12. Zolotarev, V. A., Zintchenko, V. N., Stolyarova, L. V., & Pyrig, Y. (2004). Quantitative interrelation of softening point and brittleness temperature and penetration of road bitumens. In Proceedings of the 3rd Eurasphalt and Eurobitume Congress held Vienna, May 2004, 2, 1625-1658.
13. Zolotaryov, V. A. (2012). Otsenka strukturnoho typa bytuma. Yzbrannye trudy [Assessment of the structural type of bitumen. Selected Works.]. Tom 1. Sankt-Peterburh, Slavutych, 8-13
14. Gaestel, C., Smadja, R., & Lamminan, K. A. (1971). Contribution à la connaissance des propriétés des bitumes routiers. Rev. Gentile. Routes et Aérodromes, 466, 85-94.
15. Pyrig, Ya. I., & Galkin, A. (2019). Metody otsinky adheziyi ta koheziyi bitumnykh v”yazhuchykh [Methods for assessing the adhesion and cohesion of bituminous binders], Kharkiv, 224
16. Zolotarev, V. A. (2013). Kontseptsyya vechnykh dorozhnykh odezhd [Eternal road clothes concept]. Avtomobyl’nie dorohy, 2, 60-63.
17. Minrehion. (2016). Bitum ta bitumni v”yazhuchi. Vyznachennya oporu do tverdinnya pid vplyvom teploty ta povitrya. Chastyna 1. Metod RTFOT [Bitumen and bituminous binders. Determination of the resistance to hardening under influence of heat and air. Part 1: RTFOT method]. DSTU B EN 12607-1:2015 (EN 12607-1:2014, IDT) from 1st July 2017, Kyiv, 32.